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Sinan’s Istanbul A Guide to the Works of Sinan the

Sinan’s Istanbul A Guide to the Works of Sinan the

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In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire was a world leading political power. It was also at the peak of its artistic production. Within this context, Sinan was able to embody alone the cultural heritage of his time in the field of architecture. Sinans Works constitute the crowning of Ottoman architecture, and his contribution to our architectural history is incomparable. A majority of his unique designs were implemented in Istanbul. Sinans Istanbul was designed as a comprehensive guide for those who would like to learn about the works of Sinan in Istanbul. In this book, for which he, photographed and studied each and every work on site and in detail, Reha Günay, describes with the help of architectural drawings the basic characteristics of Sinans different types of works: complexes (külliye), mosques, baths (hamam), Islamic higher education schools (medrese) and bridgesThe book divides the city of Istanbul into six areas, according to a visit course which begins at the centre of the Historical Peninsula. It includes the following districts: Sarayburnu-Süleymaniye, Eyüp-Sütlüce-Cibali-Edirnekapı, Topkapı-Saraçhane-Fatih, Yedikule-Aksaray-Fındıkzade, Şişhane-Tophane-Tepebaşı-Ortaköy and Üsküdar as the main areas which also form the main chapters of the book. Each chapter has an introduction in which maps help the reader understand the position of the works and the spatial relation between them. presented according to eight separate districts, and all have been listed in alphabetic order Reha GÜNAY Hakkında 1937’de İstanbul’da doğdu. 1960’da İTÜ Mimarlık Fakültesi’ni bitirdi. 1978’de İstanbul Üniversitesi Sanat Tarihi Bölümü’nde doktor unvanı aldı. 1987’de doçent, 1994’te profesör oldu. 1970-73 yılları arasında DGSA Mimarlık Yüksek Okulu’nda asistanlık yaptı. 1973-2004 yılları arasında Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Restorasyon Anabilim Dalı’nda öğretim üyeliği yaptı. 2005’ten bu yana Yeditepe Üniversitesi’ndedir. 1978’den bu yana Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi Fotoğraf Ana Sanat Dalı’nda “Mimari Fotoğraf” dersleri vermektedir. Mimari fotoğraf alanında da uzun yıllardan beri çalışmaktadır.Adana Karatepe Açık Hava Müzesi koruma uygulamalarında çalışt›. Antalya Side Antik Tiyatrosu araştırma ve koruma projesinde öğrencileriyle birlikte 15 yıl çalıştı. Yöresel mimarlık alanında Antalya Ormana Köyü ile Elmalı’da, Safranbolu’da ve Japonya’da çalışmalar yaptı. ÖNSÖZ (FOREWORD) Sinan’s name has come to represent the essence of Ottoman architecture. He lived at a time when the Empire was at its zenith both in terms of political power and artistic production. Indeed, Sinan’s achievements throughout the Empire and especially in Istanbul have never been equalled. Most of the buildings designed by Sinan, and certainly his most outstanding ones, were built in Istanbul. These works seem to have been developed during an architectural contest, so rich are they in novel ideas and inovations. They were also most adequately topographically located, greatly contributing to the city’s unique skyline. With such a range of highly original examples, Istanbul was practically turned into a open-air museum. Wondering through Sinan’s works and studying them in their historical sequence is not only a great pleasure; it also reveals how Ottoman architecture developed under his guidance as well as how he has inspired those architects who succeeded him. After some 400 years, many works have disappeared, and some of the surviving ones have lost their original shape, due to changes made to them or inadequate restoration work. Others were affected by misuse or lack of care. Your visit of Sinan’s works may well leave you with a sour taste. Some of these works are indeed still left without any competent control, - leave alone the possibility of being properly restored. Even a work as important as the Süleymaniye complex is still ‘under occupation’. Indeed, left in the hands of people who consider these sites as spaces merely suitable for storehouses, shops or offices, they have been abandoned to a sorry fate. Those that are supposed to be under protection too are left in the hands of people who do not realise what their worth is, while a blind eye is turned on all the kinds of commercial use they are put to. Others are victims of haphazard restoration or renovation work done by so-called philanthropic institutions or donators. As for the personnel appointed to protect these monuments, they live inside them without having any idea of their worth. One wishes all his works, from the largest to the smallest, could be maintained in good state, unspoilt by their possible new functions, with tidy environments and well kept courtyards, and that everybody could enjoy their exterior as well their interior aspect. The present book aims to offer a succinct presentation of the chief characteristics of Sinan’s most important works. Personal comments and interpretations were avoided in this presentation, except for a few observations and comparisons. Photographs were selected on a similar basis, those of works that no longer retain their original aspect or are inadequately used having been excluded. Contemporary sources on Sinan’s works are at times somewhat inconsistent. This makes it sometimes difficult to establish whether some works can really be attributed to him or not. Building inscriptions have often not survived to our day, so that construction dates must be deduced indirectly from other diverse sources with varying results. In his book, The Age of Sinan: Architecture in the Ottoman Empire (2005), a work based his archival research, Gülrü Necipoğlu has established the most exact dates concerning these buildings. In the present edition my book, I have used the dates provided by Gülrü Necipoğlu, which I find the most reliable. In this work, double dates indicate the beginning and completion time of the building. A single date indicates the time of completion. A double date preceded by the word ‘between’ refers to an approximate completion date. Dates followed by an interrogation point are used when the exact dates are not available. In the Muslim calendar, the fact that only the year and not the month of the year was specified on the bulging inscription or source documents can lead to up to a year’s difference in the date when it’s Christian calendar equivalent is given (as a result, we usually write 1538/39). In this work however a single date was given, in other words, the date reads 1538 instead of 1538/39. Reha Günay July 2006 İÇİNDEKİLER (CONTENTS) Foreword The Ottoman Empire at the Time of Sinan Ottoman Architecture Before Sinan The Life of Sinan The Works of Sinan Architectural Analysis of Sinan’s Works Sinan’s Works in Istanbul A Sarayburnu - Süleymaniye Şehzade Complex Süleymaniye Complex Sinan’s Mansion and?Tomb Hüsrev Kethüda Koran School Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa (Çinili)?Hamam Rüstem Paşa Mosque Rüstem?Paşa?Medrese Kapıağası Cafer Ağa (Soğukkuyu) Medrese Selim II Tomb Şehzadeler Tomb Hünkâr Hamam and Valide Sultan Hamam - Topkapı Palace Kitchens - Topkapı Palace Pavilion of Murad III - Topkapı Palace Haseki Hürrem Sultan Hamam Sokollu-İsmihan Sultan Complex B Eyüp - Sütlüce - Cibali - Edirnekapı Mihrimah Sultan?Complex Semiz Ali Paşa Medrese Nişancı Mehmed?Paşa Mosque Drağman Yunus?Bey Mosque Ferruh Kethüda Mosque Zal?Mahmud Paşa - Şah?Sultan Complex Sokollu Mehmed?Paşa Complex Pertev Paşa Tomb Siyavuş?Paşa Tomb Şah Sultan?Mosque and?Tekke Çavuşbaşı Mahmud Ağa Mosque C Topkapı - Saraçhane - Fatih Kara Ahmed?Paşa Complex Hürrem Çavuş?Mosque Mesih Mehmed?Paşa Mosque Mimar?Sinan Mesjid Hüsrev Paşa Tomb Şah?Huban Hatun Tomb and Primary?School Yavuz?Sultan Selim (Halıcılar Köşkü) Medrese D Yedikule - Aksaray - Fındıkzade Hadım İbrahim Paşa Mosque Arakiyeci Ahmed Çelebi / Meşeli Mesjid Odabaşı Behruz Ağa Mosque Hacı Evhad Complex Ramazan Efendi?Mosque and?Tekke Haseki Complex Esekapı Medrese (Yakup) Ağa Hamam E Şişhane - Tophane - Tepebaşı - Ortaköy Piyale Paşa Mosque Sokollu Mosque / Sokollu (Yeşildirek) Hamam Rüstem Paşa Caravanserai (Kurşunlu?Han) Kılıç Ali Paşa Complex Molla Çelebi Mosque Sinan?Paşa Complex Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa Tomb Yahya Efendi?Tomb Ortaköy Hamam F Üsküdar Mihrimah Sultan Complex Şemsi Ahmed Paşa Complex Atik Valide Complex Hacı Ahmed?Paşa Tomb Üsküdar Valide Sultan?Hamam Istanbul Vicinity Bridges Kapıağası Bridge Sultan?Süleyman Bridge Water Supply Systems Mağlova Aqueduct Uzun Kemer (Long Aqueduct) Sokollu Mesjid Sokollu Caravanserai and Fountain İskender Paşa Complex Details from Buildings Sinan’s Patrons Notes Bibliography Index

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